Jews settled in Valkenburg during the 1720s. As the century passed, the number of Jews in the town grew. In 1792, the Jews of Valkenburg purchased ground for a cemetery along the Dwingelweg near the Berkelpoort. The cemetery still exists and can be found between the present-day Daalhemerweg and the Van Meijlandstraat. Synagogue services were held in a rented house on the Beekstraat in Valkenburg beginning in 1796.
At the start of the 19th century, the Jewish population of Valkenburg declined. As a result, during the reapportionment of Jewish communities by the Nederlands Israëlitisch Kerkgenootschap in 1821, the Jews of Valkenburg were assigned to the Bijkerk (local community) of Meerssen. Later in the century, the Jewish population of Valkenburg rose once again and in 1901 the Valkenburg community was declared independent. At the time, synagogue services in Valkenburg were held in a rented room at De Passage, and later at two separate addresses on the Lindenlaan. In 1925, a new Jewish cemetery was established at the rear of the public cemetery located on the Cauberg.
Due to the location of Valkenburg close to the Dutch-German border, a number of German Jewish refugees arrived in the town during the 1930s. During the World War II German occupation of the Netherlands, more than half the Jews of Valkenburg were deported and murdered. An attempt was made to hide the community's Torah scrolls and ceremonial objects in Amsterdam but these were lost and were never recovered.
Very few Jews returned to Valkenburg after the war. The community was dissolved in 1964 and the locale was placed within the jurisdiction of the Jewish community at Maastricht. A stone in memory of the Jews of Valkenburg murdered during the Second World War was unveiled at the cemetery on the Cauberg in 1955. Both Jewish cemeteries in Valkenburg are now maintained by local authorities.
A private Jewish cemetery, the property of the single-family, still stands in the municipality of Schimmert.
The Jewish population of Valkenburg and surroundings:
The size of the Jewish community over time