Documents dating from the 1920s indicate that Jews already resided in Maassluis at that time. By the 1660s of the same century, the Jewish community had grown to such an extent that an application was made to the municipal authorities for permission to build a synagogue. In 1769, permission was obtained to build a house of worship on the Nieuwe Goudsteen or Bonestraat. A year later, the statutes of the Jewish community were approved by the city council and the synagogue could be consecrated.
During the nineteenth century, membership in the Jewish community continued to fluctuate around ninety. The synagogue was first restored in 1831 but was replaced by a new building on the Groen van Prinstererkade in 1858. The school and home for the religious teacher, who was also precentor, were located in an adjacent plot. The cemetery in the Kapelpolder was already in use before 1829.
During the nineteenth century, there were conflicts within the Jewish community and with the central administration of the Netherlands Israelite denomination in The Hague and with local authorities. As a result, parnassins were dismissed. In addition to the church administration, a treasurer for the Holy Land was employed. A women's society engaged in the maintenance of the synagogue interior.
During the twentieth century, membership of the Jewish community declined rapidly. A merger with the Jewish community of Rotterdam was under discussion as early as 1920; by 1940, the Maassluis community had effectively ceased to exist.
In October 1942, the Jews still residing in Maassluis were arrested and deported. None of them returned. Jewish life did not resume after the war. The synagogue, which was in very poor condition, was demolished. Maassluis was annexed to the Jewish community of Rotterdam in 1947. The cemetery was cleared in 1950; the remains were transferred to a separate section of the General Cemetery near the Prinses Julianalaan in Maassluis.
The Jewish population of Maassluis and surroundings:
The size of the Jewish community over time